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Rule the World with these Unix Commands

You don't need to be a Unix guru to administrate your Virtual Server; you simply need a basic knowledge of a few easy-to-use Unix commands. This list should be enough to get you started. If you would like to know more about a command, consult the online manual pages by typing at your Unix prompt:

% man [command]


Note: All commands listed in the left column should be typed on a single line.

COMMAND LIST
cd % cd [dir]

The cd command changes your current working directory to the directory you specify.

DOS Equivalent: cd
pwd % pwd

The pwd command prints your current (or present) working directory.
Ls % Ls [dir]

The Ls command lists the files and subdirectories in the directory you specify. If not directory is specified, a list of the files and subdirectories in the current working directory is displayed.

You can add some additional arguments to customize the list display.


% Ls -f
Will append a forward slash to the subdirectory names so you can easily distinguish them from file names.

% Ls -a
Will show all "hidden files". Hidden files begin with a ".", i.e. ".htaccess" files.

% Ls -l
Will show detailed information about each file and directory, including permissions, ownership, file size, and when the file was last modified.

% Ls -al
Will show a list of all file names (including hidden files and a forward slash will be appended to directory names.


DOS Equivalent: dir
cat % cat [file]

Displays the contents of the filename you specify. If you want to display the file one screen at a time try "cat [file] | more" or simply "more [file]"

DOS Equivalent: type
mkdir % mkdir [dir]

The mkdir command makes a new directory with the name, directory, that you specify. Simply type "mkdir [dir]" and hit return.

DOS Equivalent: md or mkdir
rmdir % rmdir [dir]

The rmdir command removes the directory that you specify. Simply type "rmdir [dir]" and hit return.

DOS Equivalent: rd or rmdir
cp % cp [from] [to]

The cp command copies a source-file to a target-file. Simply type "cp [from] [to]" and hit return. You can specify pathnames as part of the file specification. If target-file exists then it is overwritten.


DOS Equivalent: copy
MV % MV [from] [to]

The MV command renames a file or moves it to a new location. Simply type "MV [from] [to]" and hit return. You can specify pathnames as part of the file specification. If target-file exists then it is overwritten.

DOS Equivalent: rename
rm % rm [file]

The rm command deletes (removes) a file. Simply type "rm [file]" and hit return. You can specify pathnames as part of the file specification.


DOS Equivalent: del

grep

% grep [pattern] [files]

The grep command finds lines in files that match specified text patterns. Simply type "grep [pattern] [files]" and hit return. You can specify pathnames as part of the file specification. For example if you want to search for a patter "gif" in all html files in your current working directory, you would type "grep gif *.html" and hit return. The grep command would then list all occurrences of "gif" it finds in .html files in the current working directory.
tar % tar [options] [tarfile] [files]

The tar command copies a file or files to or from an archive. To put all the files in a directory into one tar format file, simply type "tar cvf tarfile directory" at a Telnet command prompt and replace tarfile with the name you want to call your archived file, and replace directory with the name of the directory that contains the files you want to tar.


To extract the files from a tar format archive, simply type "tar -xvf [tarfile]" at a Telnet command prompt and replace tarfile with the name of the archived file you are extracting.

For example, you could type "tar cvf pages.tar htdocs" at a Telnet command prompt to archive the files in the htdocs directory to a tar format file called pages.tar.

To view the contents of the pages.tar tarfile without extracting them, type "tar tvf pages.tar". This will display all files that are included in the tar archive.

You could also type "tar xvf pages.tar" at a Telnet command prompt to extract into the current directory the files in the archive pages.tar.
zip % zip [options] [zipfile] [files] The zip command compresses a file or list of files into a zip format archive file. This command is compatible with pkzip on a PC. Simply type "zip [zipfile] [file1] [file2] [file3]" at a Telnet command prompt and replace zipfile with the name you want to use for your compressed zip archive file, and replace fileX with the name of the file(s) you want to compress into the zip archive.

For example, type "zip backup.zip home.html index.html" at a Telnet command prompt to compress and archive the files called home.html and index.html into the file called backup.zip.

DOS Equivalent: pkzip

NOT AVAILABLE FOR SOLARIS
unzip % unzip [options] [zipfile]

The unzip command extracts a zip format archive file. This command is compatible with pkunzip files from a PC. Simply type "unzip zipfile" at a Telnet command prompt and replace zipfile with the name of your zip format archive file.


For example, type "unzip -aL old.zip" at a Telnet command prompt to extract files contained in the archive called old.zip. The "-aL" are options that are generally useful when unzipping files created on a PC.

DOS Equivalent: pkunzip


NOT AVAILABLE FOR SOLARIS
compress % compress [files]

The compress command shrinks a file or files into compressed versions to save space on your Virtual Server. This command is good for you to use on your log files when they get very large. Simply type "compress [filename(s)]" at a Telnet command prompt and replace filename(s) with the name of your files you want to compress.
For example, type "compress access_log agent_log" at a Telnet command prompt to compress the access_log and agent_log files. The compressed files will then be access_log.Z and agent_log.Z.
uncompress % uncompress [files]

The uncompress command expands a compressed file or set of compressed files. Simply type "uncompress [file(s)]" and hit return.
SEE ALSO:

Managing your Virtual Server remotely

Administration Utilities

Using Telnet and SSH

Recommended server administration books

BOOKS TO HELP YOU:


Unix in a Nutshell


Unix : Visual QuickStart Guide


Unix Power Tools



Learning the Unix Operating System

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